Arnica montana effects on gene expression in a human macrophage cell line. Evaluation by quantitative Real-Time PCR
Debora Olioso, Marta Marzotto, Clara Bonafini, Maurizio Brizzi, Paolo Bellavite.
Published Online: March 14, 2016
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Arnica montana is a popular traditional remedy widely used in complementary medicine, also for its wound healing properties. Despite its acknowledged action in clinical settings at various doses, the molecular aspects relating to how A. montana promotes wound healing remain to be elucidated. To fill this gap, we evaluated the whole plant extract, in a wide range of dilutions, in THP-1 human cells, differentiated into mature macrophages and into an alternative IL-4-activated phenotype involved in tissue remodelling and healing.
On macrophages differentiated towards the wound healing phenotype, A. montana affected the expression of several genes. In particular CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), coding for an chief chemokine, exhibited the most consistent increase of expression, while also CXC chemokine ligand 2 (CXCL2), Interleukin8 (IL8) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP2) were slightly up-regulated, suggesting a positive influence of A. montana on neutrophil recruitment and on angiogenesis. MMP1, coding for a metalloproteinase capable of cleaving extracellular matrix substrates, was down-regulated. Most results showed non-linearity of the dose-effect relationship.